Technical-papers

This is a collection of technical papers published by MAN Diesel & Turbo, Copenhagen/Holeby, Denmark, covering both MAN B&W two-stroke and MAN four-stroke diesel engines.

Our technical papers provide information on new engine developments and trends, service experience, important aspects of engine management and maintenance, and emissions requirements compliance and development, etc. 

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  • Sep 07, 2016

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    The Dynamic Limiter Function - A new engine control technology for faster ship acceleration
    The dynamic limiter function (DLF) is a new engine control system functionality that has been developed to improve engine and ship acceleration. This paper describes some principles of ship acceleration and why MAN Diesel & Turbo has chosen to develop DLF and how DLF works.
    PDF, 1.24 MB
  • Sep 07, 2016

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    Service Experience MAN B&W Two-stroke Diesel Engines
    A high number of G-type and S-type engines of the latest generation have entered service successfully. These engines are generally characterised by Tier II compliance, heavily derated layouts and performance with main focus on part and low-load fuel optimisation. Very close to 100% of these engines are of the electronically controlled ME-C and ME-B types.
    PDF, 2.64 MB
  • Jul 13, 2016

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    Cost and Benefits of Alternative Fuels for an LR1 Product Tanker
    Key results from a DNV GL and MAN Diesel & Turbo joint study The sulphur emission control areas (SECAs) in place in North-America and Northern Europe, in combination with the upcoming global 0.5% limit on sulphur in 2020 (or 2025) and similar EU limits in 2020, call for alternative fuels as a means for compliance. Several alternative fuels are available and, at the same time, new fuel oil products with very low sulphur content have been introduced.
    PDF, 982.63 KB
  • May 26, 2016

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    At the Forefront of Green Engine Technology
    Today the choice of engine technology is most often based on estimated fuel cost, the availability of the fuel and the implementation of still more strict SOX and NOx emission regulations worldwide.
    PDF, 2.65 MB
  • Jan 20, 2016

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    ME-GI Gas-ready Ship
    Given the volatile nature of today’s fuel prices combined with the introduction of a more stringent emission regulation in emission control areas, it has never been more difficult to mitigate the economic risk associated with operating a vessel.
    PDF, 601.54 KB
  • Mar 05, 2015

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    Guidelines for Operation on Fuels with less than 0.1% Sulphur
    This paper is a guideline for owners, operators and crews on how to prepare for the changes in fuel characteristics and how to operate in compliance with the new sulphur limits in sulphur emission control areas (SECA) as of 1 January 2015. The SECAs currently included are the Baltic Sea, The North Sea, the English Channel and waters within 200 nautical miles from the coast of USA, the coastal waters around Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (the US Caribbean ECA) and Canada.
    PDF, 1.32 MB
  • Mar 05, 2015

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    Filtration Handbook Filtration and Flushing Strategy
    The exacting tolerances in today’s hydraulic systems require tight control of the system contamination. Experience has shown that impurities found in the system originate from the installation and from new oil. If not removed, particles will cause damage to valves, pumps and bearings and, eventually, lead to malfunction of the system and increased wear on the hydraulic components.
    PDF, 1.24 MB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    Propulsion of VLCC
    This paper evaluates the options when selecting an engine for a VLCC (very large crude carrier) on the basis of vessel speed, propeller diameter and CO2 emissions. The influence of the various parameters is illustarted by two case studies.
    PDF, 4.16 MB
  • Mar 05, 2015

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    Shaft Generators for Low Speed Main Engines
    The purpose with this paper is to provide detailed information about different categories of shaft generators driven by a MAN B&W low speed marine engine used for ship propulsion. The paper describes different types of marine shaft generators and their configurations, with the physical connecting interfaces to the main engine or to the intermediate propeller shaft. It will provide a description of relevant aspects and can be used for reference.
    PDF, 2.02 MB
  • Jun 11, 2014

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    The MAN B&W Dual Fuel Engines – Starting a New Era in Shipping
    The need for seaborne transportation will increase significantly in the years to come. At the same time, the heavy fuel oil (HFO) price is increasing, stricter emission requirements are coming into force and the public is becoming more concerned about the environmental footprint of shipping. As a result, the industry is investigating in alternative fuels for shipping. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is an attractive option and is expected to be cheaper than fuel oil in the future.
    PDF, 793.24 KB
  • Sep 05, 2014

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    Using Methanol Fuel in the MAN B&W ME-LGI Series
    Methanol as a ship fuel is interesting for ship operators because it does not contain sulphur and is liquid in ambient air conditions which makes it easy to store on board ships. So for ships operating in International Maritime Organization (IMO) emission control areas (ECA), methanol could be a feasible solution to meet sulphur requirements.
    PDF, 454.71 KB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    Waste Heat Recovery System
    The increasing interest in emission reduction, ship operating costs reduction and the newly adapted IMO EEDI rules calls for measures that ensure optimal utilisation of the fuel used for main engines on board ships. Main engine exhaust gas energy is by far the most attractive among the waste heat sources of a ship because of the heat flow and temperature. It is possible to generate an electrical output of up to 11% of the main engine power by utilising this exhaust gas energy in a waste heat recovery system comprising both steam and power turbines, and combined with utilising scavenge air energy for exhaust boiler feed-water heating.
    PDF, 2.02 MB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    ME-GI Dual Fuel MAN B&W Engines
    This paper describes the latest developments in ME-GI dual fuel MAN B&W two-stroke engines and associated fuel supply systems. The discussion and interest in lowering CO2, NOx, SOx and particulate emissions have increased operators’ and shipowners’ interest in investigating future fuel alternatives.
    PDF, 1.50 MB
  • Apr 22, 2014

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    G60ME-C9 Vibration Performance
    MAN Diesel & Turbo has successfully completed structural vibration measurements on the first Green Dolphin 64,000 dwt bulk carrier propelled by the new »green« G-type ultra-long stroke 5G60ME-C9 main engine.
    PDF, 536.42 KB
  • Oct 02, 2013

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    Propulsion of 2,200-2,800 teu Container Vessel
    The main ship particulars of 2,200-2,800 teu container vessels are normally approximately as follows: the overall ship length is 210 m, breadth 30 m and scantling draught 11.4-12.0 m. Recent development steps have made it possible to offer solutions which will enable significantly lower transportation costs for larger feeder container vessels as outlined in the following. One of the goals in the marine industry today is to reduce the impact of CO2 emissions from ships and, therefore, to reduce the fuel consumption for the propulsion of ships to the widest possible extent at any load.
    PDF, 1.01 MB
  • Mar 03, 2014

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    Propulsion of 200,000-210,000 dwt Large Capesize Bulk Carrier
    The main ship particulars of 205,000-210,000 dwt large capesize bulk carriers are normally approximately as follows: the overall ship length is 299.9 m, breadth 50 m and scantling draught 17.9-18.4 m. Recent development steps have made it possible to offer solutions which will enable significantly lower transportation costs for large capesize bulk carriers as outlined in the following. One of the goals in the marine industry today is to reduce the impact of CO2 emissions from ships and, therefore, to reduce the fuel consumption for the propulsion of ships to the widest possible extent at any load.
    PDF, 958.56 KB
  • May 20, 2013

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    Propulsion of 7,000-10,000 dwt Small Tanker
    The main ship particulars of 7,000-10,000 dwt small tankers are normally approximately as follows: the overall ship length is 116 m, breadth 18 m and scantling draught 7.0-8.0 m. Recent development steps have made it possible to offer solutions which will enable significantly lower transportation costs for small tankers (and bulk carriers) as outlined in this paper
    PDF, 947.51 KB
  • Nov 20, 2012

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    Propulsion of 30,000 dwt Handysize Bulk Carrier
    The main ship particulars of 30,000 dwt Handysize bulk carriers are normally approximately as follows: the overall ship length is 178 m, breadth 28 m and design/scantling draught 9.5 m/10.0 m, see Fig. 1. Recent development steps have made it possible to offer solutions which will enable significantly lower transportation costs for Handysize bulk carriers (and tankers) as outlined in this paper
    PDF, 1022.12 KB
  • Dec 20, 2012

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    Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax Tanker
    The main ship particulars of 46,000-50,000 dwt Handymax tankers are normally as follows: the overall ship length is 183 m, breadth 32.2 m and design/scantling draught 11.0 m/12.2 m. Recent development steps have made it possible to offer solutions which will enable significantly lower transportation costs for Handymax tankers (and bulk carriers) as outlined in this paper. One of the goals in the marine industry today is to reduce the impact of CO2 emissions from ships and, therefore, to reduce the fuel consumption for the propulsion of ships to the widest possible extent at any load.
    PDF, 1.03 MB
  • Nov 20, 2012

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    Ice Classed Ships Main Engines
    Many merchant ship types are built for a given ice class notation which depends on the classification society and on the ice form and thickness during winter operation. Building a ship for an ice class for winterisation means for example that the hull has to be thicker with stronger girders, beams and bulkheads which, of course again, depend on the degree of ice class.
    PDF, 2.00 MB
  • Sep 17, 2013

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    Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion
    For the purpose of this paper, the term “ship” is used to denote a vehicle employed to transport goods and persons from one point to another over water. Ship propulsion normally occurs with the help of a propeller, which is the term most widely used in English, although the word “screw” is sometimes seen, inter alia in combinations such as a “twin-screw” propulsion plant.
    PDF, 1.23 MB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    Engine Management - Concept for LNG Carriers
    The world has enormous quantities of natural gas, but much of it is located in areas far from where the gas is needed. To move this environmentally friendly fuel across great distances, across oceans, natural gas must be converted into liquefied natural gas (LNG). Shipping is a vital component in any LNG supply train. But an LNG project’s shipping could simply be considered as a floating pipeline for the transportation of LNG, therefore LNG shipping is normally considered in the long term.
    PDF, 953.55 KB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    Costs and Benefits of LNG
    The use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as ship fuel has recently gained more attention in Europe, but also in Asia and the USA. There are three visible drivers which, taken together, make LNG as ship fuel one of the most promising new technologies for shipping.
    PDF, 1.40 MB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    Tier III Two-stroke Technology
    This MAN Diesel & Turbo two-stroke Tier III paper outlines the status and future development efforts in connection with Tier III technologies, and covers some of our efforts to develop measuring and calculation tools, securing better knowledge of engine processes like combustion, emission formation and scavenging of the engine.
    PDF, 1.76 MB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    QUANTUM 9000
    The need for seaborne transportation will increase significantly in the years to come. At the same time, the fuel oil price is increasing, stricter emission requirements are coming into force, and the public is becoming more concerned about the environmental footprint of shipping.
    PDF, 2.40 MB
  • Feb 09, 2012

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    Blended Edge Main Bearings
    The blended edge (BE) design was introduced on thin shell white metal main bearings to better cope with crankshaft inclinations and thereby increase the resistance towards edge fatigue failures. The blended edge design is the corresponding item to the thick shell flex-edge design for MC engines.
    PDF, 1.48 MB
  • Oct 06, 2014

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    Soot Deposits and Fires in Exhaust Gas Boilers
    The demand for the highest possible overall fuel efficiency is reflected in developments in the propulsion market for oceangoing ships. Today, this market is dominated by highly efficient two?stroke low speed diesel engines which run on low quality fuels and utilise (recover) the exhaust gas heat by means of an exhaust gas boiler/economiser.
    PDF, 1.36 MB
  • Sep 01, 2012

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    Propulsion of 8,000-10,000 teu Container Vessel
    The maximum size of recent 8,000-10,000 teu container vessels, is normally at the scantling draught within the deadweight range of 95,000-120,000 dwt and the ship’s overall length is about 320-350 m and with a breadth of about 43-46 m. Recent development steps have made it possible to offer solutions which will enable significantly lower transportation costs for container ships as outlined in this paper.
    PDF, 874.79 KB

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